Struggling With Antibiotic Resistance

I never saw it coming. The process started with a small, but painful sensation right in the middle of my right butt-cheek. A very annoying problem because I am a writer squirming around as I try to fill up empty screens with words.

At first, I downplayed it as just some stupid little irritation that would go away as soon as it came. Being a diabetic for about 25 years now I am prone to inflammations and infections. This was just another in a long succession of intermittent, annoying, health problems.

At the onset, the thought never occurred that it might be an infection. I had not had any accident, no cuts, abrasions or scrapes so that did not pop up as the culprit. That is until it persisted and grew into an open sore. The pain level also rose dramatically.

I went to the doctor. He did not think it was serious. He wrote a prescription for a mild antibiotic and a cream. I left the office confident that the problem was in hand. Back home I took a pill, applied the cream and applied a bandage.

By that point sitting at my computer and performing my daily writing ritual was growing into a serious challenge. The pain was so intense that I had to force myself not to move at all. That worked for a while. I took the full antibiotic course and got into the habit of cleaning and dressing the open wound three times a day.

The process began last November. As I came to the end of the bottle of pills I was hit by a wave of disappointment and confusion. I had to face the fact that the infection had gotten worse, not better. Had the doctor misdiagnosed it? Had he given me the wrong antibiotic? Worse, did I have some rare new infection?

I went back to his office in a far more worried state than I was during my first visit. He admitted he was puzzled but brushed that aside. I got a new prescription for a stronger antibiotic that was going to require four consecutive injections.

Once again I returned home feeling a bit numb but optimistic that this stronger injectible antibiotic would do the trick. I got the injections and waited for the medication to build up in my system and wipe out the infection. I waited and waited. The situation did not get better it got even worse.

By then I could not sit and also had a hard time walking. The pain was constant even when I was trying to write while lying down. This time when I returned to the doctor’s office he told me to go to the emergency room. He would not try another antibiotic. In fact, he seemed at a loss.

Instead, I went to a clinic. The doctor there did prescribe another antibiotic, took a culture for the lab and had nurses scrub the wound. It just kept growing as if the antibiotic cream was a placebo and the injections had been nothing but water.

At that point, I had added symptoms including chronic fatigue and the first signs of depression. These two are features of a diabetic’s life and I knew what they were as soon as they arose. My immune system was beaten down and using whatever energy it could get from whatever source was available.

I did not get my hopes up during the third two-week course of the latest antibiotic. In fact, I was on pins and needles the whole time. When I finished I was not surprised that it too had failed at its job. Still, it never occurred to me that I might be antibiotic resistant.

By that point, I began to consider the possibility that my 71-year old body was running out of gas. My energy level was so low, and pain level so high that I could not write. I could only walk the short distance to the corner store to ship and my mood was buried in the pits.

When I returned to the doctor’s office he did not seem too surprised by the fact his prescription had failed. He put the lab report up on the lightbox and pointed to it. “I am afraid the results show you are resistant to every type of antibiotic we have.”

I simply could not wrap my mind around his statement. I had never thought that I had overused antibiotics to the point my immune system built up a total tolerance. Then again, nobody ever tells you where that line is.

In fact, I had taken at least one course each of the 3 previous years to cure sinus infections. I left the office completely confused and with no idea of what to do next. The doctor suggested that I schedule an operation to remove the infected area. My thought was that hospitals are great places to contract infections. I was not eager to take that option especially when it would mean I could not sit at the computer and work for a much longer period of time.

Believe it or not, that whole process went on for four months and I still had the infection. I decided to tough it out and see if my body would mobilize and get rid of it. Then I had an impulse to try one more doctor, a female who I had seen before and was impressed by.

She gave me a spray that the other doctors never mentioned, Microdacyn. This spray is a biologically active treatment for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds that are difficult to heal. I applied and applied it every day and started seeing improvement much to my relief.

My status now is guarded and uncertain. I do now I cannot afford one more sinus infection. I did discover one effective treatment, Phage Therapy. However, that is only available in Eastern Europe. I advise a very conservative approach when it comes to taking antibiotics, only do so when it is truly necessary.

The Life of Mammogram Inventor Stafford L Warren

Stafford L. Warren was one of the most significant contributors to radiology during his lifetime. He not only was the first doctor to perform a mammogram, but was also had a hand in turning UCLA into one of the most prestigious medical universities in the country, was a special assistant on mental disabilities to Presidents John F Kennedy and Lyndon B Johnson, and aided the U.S. government in testing of nuclear weapons before speaking out about the dangers of nuclear fallout from weapons testing, which were controversial at the time. However, his strong opinions would eventually be considered, leading up to the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.

Born in New Mexico in 1896, Stafford L. Warren attended the University of California, Berkeley, and graduated with his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1918. Heading to the University of California, San Francisco, he graduated with his Doctor of Medicine degree in 1922 and later did post-doctoral work at John Hopkins School of Medicine and Harvard University.

Warren became an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine in 1926. Since the Department of Radiology was brand new at the time, Warren was one of the original group of medical professionals that Dean George Whipple chose to staff the school. By 1930, Warren was an Associate Professor of Medicine. He began to study the work of Albert Salomon, a sociologist from the University of Berlin who produced over 3,000 images of mastectomy specimens and extensively studied the many forms and stages of cancer in the breast. Since Salomon wasn’t keen to recognize the life saving aspects of his discoveries, Warren expanded on his research, using radiology to track changes in breast tissue and developing a stereoscopic technique in which the patient would lie on her side with one arm raised while being X-Rayed. This was a huge breakthrough for breast cancer detection, as it allowed diagnosis of breast cancer to be possible without surgery. Warren subsequently published “A Roentgenologic Study of the Breast” in 1930. Today Warren is cited as the inventor of the mammogram for his breast imaging technique. Each year mammograms are responsible to diagnosing millions of breast cancer cases, effectively saving the lives of women the world over.

Warren, having now tackled a major milestone in his career and developing a new life saving technique, then went on to take on a new project: overseeing the health and safety of thousands during the Manhattan Project. His new role meant being responsible for the safety aspects of the detonation of the Trinity nuclear test in Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945. He later handled radiological safety when he led a team of surveyors to Japan, and to the Bikini Atoll in 1946, where more nuclear testing was done. Warren was in charge of assessing the radioactive contamination of the environment and atmosphere, which he was appalled by.

In response to this, in a piece for LIFE magazine in 1947 he wrote, “The development of atomic bombs has presented the world with a variety of formidable scientific, moral and political problems, nearly all of them still unsolved.” He went on to write an in depth analysis of the effects of the bombs, people and environment affected, the time length in which the effects of the bomb lasted, safety measures used during the Bikini expedition in which “a month passed before men could stay on some of the ships for more than an hour”, and “300 men of the safety section lived and worked in the contaminated area to protect some 42,000 other members of the Bikini expedition. Every group which entered the target area was accompanied by a safety monitor who determined how long it could stay.” The men were then bathed carefully when they returned, and if their Geiger counters indicated radioactive contamination they had to be bathed again. “Occasionally when a man had taken off his protective gloves in the ‘hot’ area, the safety section had to dissolve the outer layer of skin from their hands with acid.” Clothes and other materials found too contaminated were sunk into the ocean a mile below the surface, because there was literally “no other way to keep them permanently away from human beings.”

In the article, Warren concluded that atomic weapons can never be prepared for by anyone involved, and that “no defense would have been effective. The only defense against atomic bombs still lies outside the scope of science. It is the prevention of atomic war.”

Warren left his position in 1946, becoming the Chief of the Medical Section of the Atomic Energy Commission, which is a civilian agency that succeeded the Manhattan Project; and later he was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal and the Legion of Merit for his contributions to radioactive and atomic weapons safety.

In 1947, Warren was once again at the helm of a brand new medical university, this time UCLA, which had been voted on to establish a medical school for Southern California. He was appointed as the school’s first dean. In 1951 the first students, 28 in total, were enrolled, and there were 15 faculty members. By 1955, when the class graduated, there were 43 faculty members. The UCLA Medical Center officially opened in 1955, and Warren oversaw many milestones and achievements while there, including the addition of schools for Dentistry, Nursing, and Public Health.

Cancer Immunotherapy Use on Cancer Patients

Recent advances in treating cancer patients have resulted in the development of biological therapies that can prove to be a promising alternative to conventional cancer therapies. Immunotherapy harnesses the body’s immune system to identify and fight effectively against cancer cells.

Immunotherapy works by attacking the growth of cancer cells or stimulating the immune system to kill cancer cells. Contradictory to the standard cancer treatment regimes such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, which act on both normal and cancerous cells, immuno-therapeutic treatments are highly specific. A wide range of cancer immuno-therapy approaches exists such as immune checkpoint blockers, cancer vaccines, immune-modulators, monoclonal antibodies and cell based immuno-therapies have demonstrated to be effective against cancer patients.

The most commonly targeted form of cancer chemotherapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies as they can be tailor-made in the laboratory. They have unique antigen specificity thereby allowing themselves to attach to specific epitopes on cancer cells. This flags the cancer cells and makes it more visible to the immune system so that it can find and destroy those cells. Currently, most of the monoclonal antibodies are undergoing phase 3 clinical trials or awaiting FDA review process. Unlike monoclonal antibodies, non-specific immuno-therapy approaches such as administration of immuno-modulatory cytokines are also being used to treat melanoma. Cytokines are hormones that are endogenously produced by the body to enhance or suppress T-cell response against cancer cells. IFN-α and IL-2 are most commonly characterized cytokines used in cancer immuno-therapy.

The primary cell-based immuno-therapy strategy which is successful these days is the use of T-cell therapy, wherein cancer T cells removed from blood are modified with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and is then infused back into the patients to treat metastatic cancer. Another form of cell-based immuno-therapy used is tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) therapy, wherein TIL is surgically removed from tumor tissue and is considerably increased in the laboratory by adding cytokines to it and is then re-infused back into the patient.

A promising treatment that has emerged in recent times for treatment of melanoma is the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. They act by inhibiting the checkpoint receptors on T cells that act as brakes to the immune system thereby mediating anti-tumor responses. Some of the commonly used antibody inhibitors that have been commercialized are PD-1, PDL-1, and CTLA-4. Another more focused approach to cancer immuno-therapy is the use of vaccines to encourage the immune system to generate antibodies that can target tumor specific antigens, thereby eradicating cancerous cells. Cancer vaccines include peptide-based, dendritic cell-based, tumor cell-based and DNA cell based. Cancer vaccines can be broadly classified as preventive or therapeutic. Preventive vaccines are commercially available for against cervical and liver cancer causing viruses such as human Papillomavirus and Hepatitis B virus, respectively.

However, in spite of these advances, limitation such as tumor heterogeneity, unpredictable efficacy and identification of potential markers still exist in the field of cancer immuno-therapy. Therefore, new more targeted cancer immuno-therapies and preventive strategies are being developed and tested, which will deliver novel efficacious therapy against relapsed or refractory cancer patients.

The Present and Future of Radiotherapy

The radiotherapy market is growing due to several factors, such as an increase in the number of new cancer cases and technological advancement in the hardware and software used in radiotherapy. The current international markets are underequipped to address new cases of cancer. In low- and middle-income countries, only 10% of the population has access to radiotherapy. Therefore, there exists a wide gap between the demand and the installed base of equipment, which offers a huge opportunity for the companies to grow in the radiotherapy market. Expansion of the radiotherapy market can be both lifesaving and profitable.

Effective planning for the treatment

It is necessary, and continuous technological developments are taking place to minimize the exposure to radiation of healthy tissue, in order to avoid any side effect. This goal is a driving force of R&D for radiotherapy. Software plays an increasingly significant role in cancer care. Population growth and increased life expectancy are adding to the incidences of cancer. The software & services segment includes software, which is used for treatment planning, analysis, and services, which are needed for the maintenance and efficient use of radiotherapy devices. The software & services segment of the companies are expected to grow, as software products help improve physician engagement and clinical knowledge-sharing, patient care management, and the management of cancer clinics, radiotherapy centers, and oncology practices for better performance. Companies like Varian are continuously increasing their software portfolio. Software plays an increasingly significant role in cancer care. At the same time, healthcare systems are subject to harsh budgetary constraints in nearly every country. As a result, healthcare providers face the challenge of achieving more while using fewer resources. To achieve this goal, hospitals have a strong need for software platforms that make radiotherapy treatment cost-effective. The development of effective software will improve the delivery of advanced radiotherapy in the future.

Introduction of new technology
Technology is another salient feature. Radiation therapy remains a significant modality for cancer treatment, which is the primary driving factor for the designing of new techniques to improve the survival rate of cancer patients. New technologies, like proton beam therapy, are available in developed countries like the United States, Germany, and United Kingdom, due to well-established reimbursement policies. Proton therapy can be used on tissues that are highly sensitive, like brain, spine, and eye tumors. It is more accurate, as compared to other X-ray radiation therapies.

Advancement in the technology is also helping to execute the planning of the radiation therapy.

Technological advancement in existing technologies, such as CT imaging, is making imaging more accurate and consistent. This can give a better representation of a tumor and help in better planning. Already-existing technology, such as IMRT, SBRT, IGRT, conformal 3D, VMAT, and others that are used for radiation therapy treatment is undergoing various advancements. For example, Varian is developing a software, which can be used to develop better planning tools, in which statistical models can be used to calculate the quality of an IMRT treatment for a patient. This is expected to increase the usage of IMRT for treating cancer. IGRT is the type of radiotherapy. Research is more focused on IGRT, in order to prove its fewer side-effects. IGRT may include electronic portal imaging, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT scan reconstruction, and respiratory gating technology. SBRT is also growing as an option for treating cancer. SBRT is used to escalate the dose to the targeted tumor, which can increase local control while limiting the dose to nearby critical structures and normal tissues. This will cause minimum damage to the surrounding tissues and hence, will experience strong growth in the forecast period.

Good,, Bad, and Trans Fats and the Health Risk They Pose

What many don’t realise is that fats are essential for good health. The brain, for instance, is contains fat, but it is the good one and not that which can kill you. As people age they become more susceptible to weight gain and the large stomachs seen in many. The fat around their middle is from bad fats that usually come from things like sugar and trans fats.

Alcohol is the same as sugar in its molecular component. In other words, sugar breaks down into the same structure as alcohol and this is why beer drinkers end up with what is described as a ‘beer gut’. But that is not trans fat but the product of a normal digestive function whereby the ‘sugar’ overloads the liver and turns into fat.

In that case one may end up with a fatty liver and possibly pancreas leading to cancer of the organs. It also leads to diabetes and loss of limbs, eye-sight, and heart disease, among other things.

Then there are the trans-fats and these are normal fats that have undergone transformation due to heat. They take on extra molecules of hydrogen during the process and that makes them virtually indigestible by the liver so that they are laid around the vital organs.

The worst practice comes from super heated and oft heated oils. They are found in commercial ovens where deep fried fish and vegetables are produced. They are the in many of the snack foods people are addicted to while the warning that should accompany them is that they can lead to diseases, as described above, and even death.

Environmental Factors for Hair Loss

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF HAIR LOSS

Hair loss – a common problem which adversely impacts the self-esteem of a number of individuals all over the world. While many people blame the condition entirely on genetics, it is important to know that there are many other factors which contribute to both female and male pattern baldness.

There are numerous individuals know about the way that our encompassing condition can assume a key part in causing male pattern baldness. The beneath specified focuses will tell about the different ecological elements which can prompt male pattern baldness in the two people:

1. Contamination

Debased air contains toxins and cancer-causing agents which can meddle with the protein in charge of hair development bringing about loss of hair. As per researchers, a few poisons can enter the circulatory system, body and skin, and debilitate the hair follicles. It is consequently that spots with a dirtied domain have more number of bare individuals.

2. Hard Water

Hard water is one of the greatest ecological components that prompt male pattern baldness. Late looks into have demonstrated that nations having water with more PPM (parts per million) have more number of uncovered individuals. Higher amounts of magnesium, calcium and silica can cause dryness and harm the hair.

3. Concoction Substances

Barely any compound substances, for example, chlorine found in swimming pools are known to mischief and harm the hair. While there’s nothing concrete over the immediate connection amongst chlorine and sparseness, it is regularly connected to adversely influencing the general prosperity of hair.

4. Warmth and Sun

Drawn out presentation to the sun may bring about perpetual male pattern baldness. A sunburn influencing the scalp can enact Telogen Effluvium, which is a male example hair sparseness condition wherein more than expected follicles enter the resting period of the development cycle. This can exacerbate the male pattern baldness issue.

ADVANTAGES OF HAIR TRANSPLANT

1. There are no complications in hair transplantation:- Hair transplants are very protected. In any case, it’s somewhat of an extend to state that they are without inconvenience. Patients may have redness, swelling and crusting post operatively. When all is said in done, the recuperation in FUE methodology is considerably less demanding than FUT strategies. In any case, there are uncommon difficulties in hair transplant surgery that incorporate dependable nerve torment (more in FUT than FUE systems) and steady scalp redness. Unless a doctor is painstakingly checking the methodology, a patient can even become ill. The hair transplant group tends to bashful far from calling hair transplant systems a ‘surgery’ to make the strategy more patient neighborly – yet don’t imagine it any other way a hair transplant is a surgery.

2. You will regain the hair density of your youth:- A hair transplant is a surgical system which included moving somewhere in the range of 10 to 10,000 hairs into a zone of thinning up top. On the off chance that a region of male pattern baldness is little, it might be conceivable to manufacture some extremely decent thickness in the territory – yet the thickness is for the most part short of what it used to be. For instance, in a patient who is exceptionally uncovered, a thickness of 35-40 follicular units for every square centimeter will regularly be made. This zone likely had a thickness of at least 90 follicular units for every square centimeter at one time years sooner. In this way, it is for the most part the standard for a hair transplant to make comes about that are less thick than the first thickness. A talented specialist can regularly help make 35-40 follicular units resemble the first thickness. Be that as it may, photographs and recordings of patients with incredibly thick and thick hair following their technique may not generally be exact.

Importance of Right Glassware

Eating and drinking may be just another imperative thing to do for humans for their survival, but they are impacted by a lot of things. One of the factors that has a direct effect on the manner in which the food is targeted and absorbed by the body is the psychology with which one consumes their food and drinks and this psychology is majorly affected by the cutlery and the utensils in which we do this repetitive task. Eating proper is not just about eating the right food in the right manner, but it is also about eating it in the right kind of dishes. The plates and glass in front of us can either make or kill the mood to eat food (no matter how good it is or how well it has been cooked). For example, a normal steel plate can be an immediate mood killer as compared to one made out of some great quality glass. Same goes for the glasses; be it for drinking water, serving alcohol to guests, or just gulping down some wine or beer when you are in the mood.

The entire paragraph can be paraphrased to basically say that the crockery, cutlery, and glasses used for food intake should be swanky and attractive to not only make the food look more good and presentable, but also to add a touch of chic and décor to your kitchen and also leave a good impression on the guests (if and when they come).

BUYING THE RIGHT TYPE OF GLASS DISHES

So far we saw how the type of dishes used can be a buzzkill for many which is why in all sorts of setups (be it your home or a professional environment such as a restaurant or a bar, etc.), following are some factors that one may consider in order to ensure that your crockery and glass dishes always appear at their best:

If plates are the concerned department, it is best advised to stay simple yet elegant and the best way to do so is to go with plain white plates reason being that they are conveniently inexpensive, present the food in the best manner possible, and also do not fade away easily.

For wine glasses, it always suggested to go with those that have a relatively sturdy build to them for them slipping away from your or your guests’ hands are always a great flight risk not worth taking.

For red wine, go with glasses with a wide bowl
For white wine, go with a glass that has a comparatively narrow bowl

Chemistry teaches us that “symmetry leads to stability” and the same should be applied to your crockery. The balance between normal and ornate design plates should be perfect.

For champagne and martini and other types of alcohol glasses, there is no fixed trend you can follow. There are quite a bunch of options to choose from depending upon the alcohol and your taste and preference when it comes to your glassware. For example, the champagne flute is the most common champagne glass, the brandy balloon is the most common glass used to serve brandy, etc.

A Healthy Dose of Medicine for the Soul

A large segment of the human population takes things way too seriously for their own good. The strange anomaly is that most people laugh at the wrong thing and fail to laugh at the right thing. This serious incongruity has robbed people of a healthy attitude towards life in general.

Those who take life too seriously are in danger of missing the great joys of living in a crazy world like ours. I am not sure about the scientific research but I would guess that for every sad moment it takes one hundred laughs to balance the books. Some people are about ninety-nine laughs short of a real sane moment.

I like the old English proverb that says, “Laugh and the whole world laughs with you, cry and you cry alone.”

From my perspective, if you cannot laugh with someone you will not be able to cry with him or her and have it mean anything.

According to some medical advice, it takes more facial muscles and energy to frown than it does to smile. Of course, the only exercise some people have is frowning and who am I to take that away from them.

I am determined, no matter what, to exercise my right to smile and laugh and enjoy the world around me. I must confess that I get this attitude quite honestly.

My paternal grandfather was a Past Master in the area of practical jokes. No amount of time was too much to spend preparing for one of his famous practical jokes. His favorite holiday was April 1 and began preparing for this holiday right after Christmas.

The fact that his practical jokes at times got him into trouble did not seem to affect him at all.

Once while in the hospital for an extended period he had somebody smuggle in to him a can of snuff. For some reason he liked chewing snuff. It is the most disgusting habit I know of on earth.

He no sooner received his smuggled goods then he began chewing it. If you know anything about chewing snuff, you know it is accompanied by a lot of spitting. As usual, his timing was impeccable. Just as the head nurse passed his door and looked in, he leaned over and spit in to the garbage can he had next to his bed. The nurse, not knowing about the chewing snuff, thought he was spitting blood and immediately went into emergency mode. Immediately my grandfather was rushed into the operating room and the surgeon and medical team were assembled.

My grandfather was very sick at the time. Some did not think he would get out of the hospital.

Just as they got him situated in the operating room he pulled from under his sheet his can of chewing snuff and smiled at them. The only person in the room that thought this was in any way amusing was my grandfather. The doctors were so angry with him that they refused to see him for three days and confiscated his can of chewing snuff.

My aunt and uncle lived right next to my grandfather. My aunt was hyper clean when it came to her house. Dirt in any form was not welcome under her roof. She had a broom that was always within reach because she never knew when a piece of dirt would try to invade her domicile.

That year my grandfather found something new. I am not sure where he found it but he probably spent a lot of time looking for something like this. It was a rubber facsimile of a very nasty looking piece of vomit. To him it was a prized possession.

Most of his practical jokes were executed on April 1. Whenever we saw grandfather coming on this particular day we usually ran for cover.

He went over to visit my aunt and was sitting on the couch in the living room. They chatted for a little while and then my grandfather began to cough a little bit. He said to my aunt, “I haven’t been feeling good lately. I really don’t know what it is.” Then he started to cough a little more seriously, to which, my aunt got up and went to the kitchen to get him a glass of water thinking that might help him.

When she got back, she was shocked to see on her new coffee table a very horrible sight. My grandfather was bent over the coffee table hacking and coughing as though he was in the process of dying. On the coffee table was a very nasty looking piece of vomit.

My aunt went into hysterics. She whirled around and within a moment had grabbed her broom and started towards my grandfather. My grandfather was laughing but not for long.

Suddenly he realized that the flailing broom in my aunt’s hand was aimed at him. She chased him out of the house, down the driveway and for at least three blocks yelling obscenities at him that I dare not repeat in public society.